One of the benefits of StarfishETL is that it's Engine (where all the magic happens) is Web-services based. This means not only can StarfishETL itself run in the cloud, but you can control it programmatically through it's SOAP interface. You can tell the server to begin processing a job with a very simple call. Passing in an argument, the job could process data for a particular record, and return a result to your calling application. I've included some sample code in this post to do this from within a php5 script, but you could do this from any language which supports making SOAP calls.
Here's the sample code:
And here's a sample of the results: